civil resistance examples
[2] The phenomenon of civil resistance is often associated with the advancement of democracy.[3]. Kenneth Maxwell, 'Portugal: "The Revolution of the Carnations", 1974–75', in Roberts and Garton Ash. Throughout history, we'll often hear about people (like Gandhi) who are encouraging civil resistance. existing research supports these findings, Holding governments, corporations and other non-state actors accountable. Labor movements around the world have consistently used tactics of civil resistance to win concessions for workers throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. You can test out of the "[14] Subsequently, as State Counsellor of Myanmar from 2016 onwards, she incurred much criticism, especially in connection with the failure to prevent, and to condemn, the killings and expulsions of the Rohingya people in Rakhine State. Specifically, civil resistance is inextricably associated with the concept of nonviolence. Civil resistance is a long-standing and widespread phenomenon in human history. So, what does this look like in practice? Processes of the first two of these kinds happened, for example, in, There have also been some cases of certain uses of force by civil resistance movements, whether against their adversaries, or to maintain internal discipline. In 2006, Nepalis used nonviolent methods to restore democratic rule to their country. Anti-corruption and transparency campaigns, Campaigns for public and community safety and reducing deadly violence in conflict zones, Environmental sustainability and conservation. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} Can something be civil without being...civil? The uprising in Burma in 2007, known as the Saffron revolution, was initiated by Buddhist monks and joined by students, women and political activists. All these terms have merits, and refer to largely the same phenomena. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. It's all very civil, but that doesn't always mean it's polite. Some have opted for civil resistance when they were in opposition to the government, but then have later, when in government, adopted or accepted very different policies and methods of action. Quiz & Worksheet - Overview of Civil Resistance, Over 79,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Frames of Reference: How America Views the Political System, Political Participation in the United States: Influences & Voter Turnout, Alternative Forms of Political Participation: Role & Types, Political Nomination: Definition & Process, Political Patronage: Definition, Motives & Example, Reverse Discrimination: Definition, Examples & Cases, Sphere of Influence: Definition & Significance, Tenure of Office Act of 1867: Definition & Summary, The Committees of Correspondence: Definition & Purpose, What is Political Socialization? Note: Search results are listed in alphabetical order. Civil resistance is a broad category that includes various acts of protest where the people are united against a specific law, policy, or government. "[38] It is a near-synonym for nonviolent resistance, civil disobedience, people power and satyagraha. While the people are resisting, they are generally doing so within legal and ethical boundaries. 's' : ''}}. One frequently-encountered aspect of this problem is that regimes facing opposition taking the form of civil resistance often launch verbal attacks on the opposition in terms designed to suggest that civil resistance is simply a front for more sinister forces. They can assume many forms. [7], It is not easy to devise a method of proving the relative success of different methods of struggle. Despite atrocities committed by the Indonesian military, years of a media blackout, and severe repression, successful mass-based civil resistance among East Timorese drew allies from within Indonesia, catalyzed international exposure and pressure for the East Timorese cause, and increasing the costs of Indonesian repression and occupation, which led to an independence referendum in 1999. In practical terms, nonviolence helps make the protestors look better. That's an important distinction to make, particularly within the American legal system. | 1 Civil resistance can include thousands of people, or very few. Various terms have been used to describe either the policy of relying on such non-military action by a society or social group, or the general phenomenon of sustained country-wide campaigns against outside attack or dictatorial rule. Civil resistance is a broad category that includes various acts of protest where the people are united against a specific law, policy, or government. All Rights Reserved. Get access risk-free for 30 days, imaginable degree, area of What exactly are the advantages of the term "civil resistance", as distinct from its near-synonyms "non-violent action" and "non-violent resistance"? Someone may choose not to stand during a national anthem. This is actually one of the oldest forms of protest in the USA. [18] Such accusations of sinister power-political involvement are often presented without convincing evidence. Adam Roberts, "Terrorism Research: Past, Present and Future". first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. - Definition, Types & Examples, What Is Civic Nationalism? It emphasises the positive (civic goals; widespread civil society involvement; and civil as distinct from uncivil conduct) rather than the negative (avoidance of the use of violence). Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal See for example his discussion of "Illustrations from the Past" in Gene Sharp. Unarmed people brought down seemingly irremovable and powerful autocratic leaders, but democratic consolidation after these transitions remains uneven. For example, on 2 February 2011, in the generally peaceful, Some civil resistance movements have sought, or welcomed, a measure of armed protection for their activities. [17] Similarly, President Bashar al-Assad of Syria, in March 2011, accused "enemies" of using "very sophisticated tools" to undermine Syria's stability; and President Vladimir Putin of Russia, in speeches in 2014, described events in Ukraine and the Arab countries as foreign-influenced. Violence also breaks the law, which is not the point of civil resistance. Preparations for such resistance are sometimes seen as potentially helping to deter such threats in the first place. This can happen if, for example, they (a) are perceived as failures, or (b) are repressed with extreme violence, or (c) succeed in removing a regime but then leave a power vacuum in its place. In 2000, Serbs ousted Slobodan Milosevic, after a nonviolent movement helped co-opt the police and military, thereby dividing his base of support. Back in the colonial period, the British imposed taxes upon the colonists without giving them representation in Parliament, which they needed in order to fight the loss of self-governance. David Cortright, review on E-International Relations website, 17 January 2013. The Filipino dictator Ferdinand Marcos and the Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet were brought down by nonviolent movements in the 1980s. The basic idea here is that consumers have power through their purchasing decisions. Civil resistance is not generally understood as intentional lawbreaking, even if the resisters are violating municipal or legal codes. There have been numerous cases throughout the years in which protestors were arrested for trespassing, loitering, or blocking traffic, and then they used the concept of civil resistance as a defense. Nonviolent protestors refuse to use aggressive, threatening, or harmful tactics, even if those same tactics would be used against them. 22 chapters | Cases of perceived failure of civil resistance being followed by armed campaigns and military intervention are outlined by Richard English and Howard Clark in Roberts and Garton Ash. Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.). In 2005, vast protests in Lebanon brought an end to Syrian military control. They are, through their actions, resisting by demonstrating popular support against it. Perhaps the most common form of civil resistance, however, is simply the demonstration, or a massive gathering of people. Create an account to start this course today. It's important to note immediately that civil resistance is seen as an act of legal or lawful protest. T. R. Davies, "The failure of strategic nonviolent action in Bahrain, Egypt, Libya and Syria: 'political ju-jitsu' in reverse". In 2003, Georgians used nonviolent action to expose fraud and enforce election results in their country, and in 2004, Ukrainians did the same. It was subjected to a brutal crackdown. Palestinians in the West Bank continue nonviolent resistance against Israel’s construction of a wall separating Palestinians from their land. When we talk about the word ''civil'' in this sense, we're talking about something that revolves around the people. Several works on civil resistance adopt a historical approach to the analysis of the subject. ), These accusations by Presidents Assad and Putin are cited and discussed in Adam Roberts, Michael J. Willis, Rory McCarthy and. Gandhi used it in many of his writings. In modern times, the Black Lives Matter and Women's March movements are examples of this form of civil resistance, as were several demonstrations of the Arab Spring that ultimately toppled regimes in the Arabic-speaking world. Civil resistance is a long-standing and widespread phenomenon in human history. 5 Examples of Civil Disobedience We Can Learn From in 2018 In 2017, marginalized folks fought back, marched, and campaigned unceasingly to protect ourselves, our friends, and our communities. - Definition & Examples, What is Interventionism in Politics? [1] Civil resistance operates through appeals to the adversary, pressure and coercion: it can involve systematic attempts to undermine the adversary's sources of power, both domestic and international. These terms - all near-synonyms - include "defence by civil resistance", "non-violent defence", "civilian defence", "civilian-based defence", and "social defence".

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